With regard to what I
have just called the two great methods in Yoga, we find that by
one of these a man treads the path of knowledge by Buddhi--the pure
reason; and the other the same path by Manas--the concrete mind.
You may remember that in speaking yesterday of the sub- divisions
of Antah-karana, I pointed out to you that there we had a process
of reflection of one quality in another; and within the limits of
the cognitional aspect of the Self, you find Buddhi, cognition reflected
in cognition; and Ahamkara, cognition reflected in will; and Manas,
cognition reflected in activity. Bearing those three sub-divisions
in mind, you will very readily be able to see that these two methods
of Yoga fall naturally under two of these heads. But what of the
third? What of the will, of which Ahamkara is the representative
in cognition? That certainly has its road, but it can scarcely be
said to be a "method". Will breaks its way upwards by
sheer unflinching determination, keeping its eyes fixed on the end,
and using either buddhi or manes indifferently as a means to that
end. Metaphysics is used to realise the Self; science is used to
understand the Not-Self; but either is grasped, either is thrown
aside, as it serves, or fails to serve, the needs of the moment.
Often the man, in whom will is predominant, does not know how he
gains the object he is aiming at; it comes to his hands, but the
"how" is obscure to him; he willed to have it, and nature
gives it to him.
This is also seen in
Yoga in the man of Ahamkara, the sub-type of will in cognition.
Just as in the man of Ahamkara, Buddhi and Manas are subordinate,
so in the man of Buddhi, Ahamkara and Manas are not absent, but
are subordinate; and in the man of Manas, Ahamkara and Buddhi are
present, but play a subsidiary part. Both the metaphysician and
the scientist must be supported by Ahamkara. That Self-determining
faculty, that deliberate setting of oneself to a chosen end, that
is necessary in all forms of Yoga. Whether a Yogi is going to follow
the purely cognitional way of Buddhi, or whether he is going to
follow the more active path of Manas, in both cases he needs the
self-determining will in order to sustain him in his arduous task.
You remember it is written in the Upanishad that the weak man cannot
reach the Self. Strength is wanted. Determination is wanted. Perseverance
is wanted. And you must have, in every successful Yogi, that intense
determination which is the very essence of individuality.
Now what are these two
great methods? One of them may be described as seeking the Self
by the Self; the other may be described as seeking the Self by the
Not-Self; and if you will think of them in that fashion, I think
you will find the idea illuminative. Those who seek the Self by
the Self, seek him through the faculty of Buddhi; they turn ever
inwards, and turn away from the outer world. Those who seek the
Self by the Not-Self, seek him through the active working Manas;
they are outward-turned, and by study of the Not-Self, they learn
to realise the Self. The one is the path of the metaphysician; the
other is the path of the scientist.
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